How and where we live.

Take a look at Europe's differing living conditions.

Please select a topic:

Social background is still a decisive determinant for education in EU member states. Children with parents who have a higher educational background find their way to university in much greater numbers than those with parents who only completed compulsory education. A reality that is directly opposed to the idea of equal opportunities. Possible approaches supporting an increase in educational mobility are outlined in our solutions.

High quality of living depends to a large part on easily accessible and affordable high quality health care. A great number of people in the EU are already profiting from good health provisions. However, access for low income groups, however, is still lagging. Added to this an ageing population will become a challenge for the EU, for example in care giving services. Find out more about this issue in our solutions.

Health is an important pillar for a good life. Factors influencing the subjective perception of health are manifold. Diet and quality of air play important roles, for example. In order to maintain and to further increase the health of the population, different types of actions at different levels are necessary. Find out more under solutions.

Death rates in the EU, connected to violent causes such as murder and manslaughter have been steadily declining for several years, signifying greater public safety and a higher quality of life. This trend is based on many reasons and should be sustained. Simultaneously women and LGBTIQ-individuals still suffer from violence and discrimination. Possible steps to improve this situation can be found in our solutions

For a high quality of life, a subjective sense of security plays a significant role. For several years this sense has been increasing in most EU member states. A trend that is based on many reasons and which should be sustained. Simultaneously, especially women and LGBTIQ-individuals still suffer from violence and discrimination. Measures for further improvements are located in our solutions

People in Europe spend the largest parts of their lives within buildings, the most of it inside their own four walls. However, especially people at risk of poverty often live in overcrowded flats. In order to establish a high living standard for all, equally distributed and sufficient housing possibilities are an important condition. Find out more under solutions.

Affordable housing is an important prerequisite for a high quality of life. Increasing housing costs pose an existential question, especially for people at risk of poverty. A great many are unable to pay for shelter and live on the streets. The right to housing is a basic right. It has to be guaranteed via various means. Discover more in our solutions.

Climate change is fuelled by high levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions within EU borders. If the required reduction of EU greenhouse gas emissions by 80% is to be achieved until 2050, changes on many levels are necessary. Concurrently, emissions can no longer be shifted abroad. Find out more under solutions.

At the moment, anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are predominantly caused by the burning of fossil fuels. Apart from reducing energy consumption in general, energy needs to be supplied from renewable sources in the future. To achieve this, swift and ambitious investments are necessary. Discover more in our solutions.

Private transport in passenger cars has developed into one of the major sources of greenhouse gas emissions in EU member states. Added to this, rising income leads to higher numbers of cars and an increase in the number of kilometres covered by cars. Besides causing pollution, noise and accidents, this development also contributes to increased space consumption in cities. Expanding and subsidising alternative and affordable modes of mobility is crucial. Discover more in our solutions.

While conventional farming is aimed at high yields, organic agriculture focusses on protecting animals and the environment. Polls show that people emphasise ecological products but these preferences are opposed by high costs. Added to this, food supply is currently concentrated in the hands of only a few corporations. Subsidisation of organic farming and democratic food policies are paramount for the future. Find out more under solutions.

EU member states with higher incomes in general have higher energy consumption levels. Within EU member states, energy consumption is also unequally distributed. Besides further developing renewable energy sources, energy consumption should be lowered and energy poverty combated. This will require changes on numerous levels as well as investments in infrastructure. Find out more under solutions.

Especially richer EU member states are characterised by high and increasing uses of resources, resulting in substantial environmental impact. While people of the global south only contribute little to resource use, they nevertheless have to bear the brunt of environmental degradation, e.g. through climate change. A reduction of resource consumption as well as a new version of trade is called for. Find out more under solutions.

In order to promote health and high living standards, pollution caused by particulate matter must be kept as low as possible. Expanding and subsidising alternative and affordable modes of mobility is the best way to reduce this form of pollution. Find out more under solutions.

A decent and secure job is the basis for a good life. Challenges that have a strong impact on working environments, such as globalisation, digitalisation and precarisation, need to be engaged with actively; austerity policies and exploitative working conditions within the EU have to be ended. The EU has to commit itself to the creation of good working conditions in other regions of the world. Various solution ideas exist, regarding the provision of good and safe employment for all people. Find out more under solutions.

Long-term unemployed often face difficulties in finding work. The same holds true for youth and old-age unemployment. These groups have to be supported effectively. Find out more under solutions.

The amount of working hours spent in wage labour is a crucial determinant for people's health and leisure, for their time for civic engagement and for domestic - as well as care work. Despite steadily rising productivity over the last decades, working hours have not been significantly reduced. Yet, working-day-length and working hours in general are not set in stone but the result of political negotiating processes. Find out more under solutions.

Wage based work is done to a large extent by men while unpaid work such as household chores or care-giving falls predominantly to women. This contributes to poverty risk among the elderly and to economic dependency of women. For the EU, the difference in pensions between men and women currently measures roughly 40%. Distributing working hours in an equitable manner is important for the creation of greater fairness and for a high quality of life. Find out more under solutions.

Prolonged large export surpluses or deficits can cause instabilities and crises within economic systems. In order to achieve stability, the current accounts of countries need to be balanced in the medium and long run. Find out more under solutions.

Public infrastructure such as schools, hospitals, public transportation, roads and bridges are necessary for a stable economy and vitally important for high living standards. Underinvestment causes the quality of public infrastructure to decline. Pressing societal challenges, such as climate change, necessitate investing in new socio-economic infrastructure. To do so, austerity policies have to be ended and the golden investment rule has to be implemented. Find out more under solutions.

Currently, 22.4 percent of EU citizens are at risk of poverty and social exclusion. While poverty risk has decreased in Eastern European countries, austerity policies have caused it to increase substantially in Southern Europe. A number of solution ideas aimed at actively curbing poverty and exclusion exist. Find out more under solutions.

Inequality of income is evident in many dimensions. Differences exist between occupational groups and countries as well as between men and women. Discover more in our solutions.

In many countries of the EU, wealth disparity is substantially higher than income inequality. Among other contributing factors, this is caused by low, or non-existent inheritance and wealth (gain) taxes. Wealthy people inherit more and markedly more often. A fairer distribution of wealth is an important element concerning high quality of life and a more equitable allocation of life chances. Continue the quest for a fairer Europe with our solutions.

The share of wages in total income (wage share) has been steadily declining in the last decades. The falling wage shares also impact the stability of European national economies. To counter the causes of falling wage shares, stronger welfare states and unions are necessary, as are regulations of financial markets and new trade policies. Discover more in our solutions.

Income for men and women is still unequally distributed. Women work part-time and in lower paid jobs more often. Furthermore a substantial part of the wage differential of men and women have still not been explained completely. The (unadjusted) gender pay gap depicted here includes all these factors. Lower wages for women affect the distribution of wealth between men and women as well as female pension levels. The difference in pension between men and women measures roughly 40% in all the EU combined. Find out more under solutions.

In most EU countries, women remain underrepresented in leading political functions. Even though the share of seats in parliaments and governments held by women has noticeably increased in recent years, a quota of 50% still remains distant for many countries. Balancing this ratio is based on many factors. Find out more under solutions.

Women in leading functions are still underrepresented in the private sector. Even though the share of seats on supervisory boards of the largest listed companies held by women has noticeably increased in recent years, a quota of 50% still remains distant for many countries. Balancing this ratio is based on many factors. Discover more in our solutions.

Having access to the internet is an essential prerequisite for participation in democratic societies. In recent years, however, disinformation, hate-speech in social networks and broad based surveillance have become more and more dominant. Guaranteeing people access to the internet and protecting them online, is central for the stability of democracies in EU member states. So is access to independent and high quality journalism. Find out more under solutions.

In many member states of the EU, a substantial decline of trust in European institutions has been recognisable, especially since the financial crisis of 2007/08. And yet, confidence in the institutions of the EU is of vital importance if European democracy is to remain steadfast. To restore and increase trust, various ideas exist. Find more in section solutions.

In many member states of the EU, a substantial decline of trust in European institutions has been recognisable, especially since the financial crisis of 2007/08. And yet, confidence in the institutions of the EU is of vital importance if European democracy is to remain steadfast. To restore and increase trust, various ideas exist. Find more in section solutions.

In many member states of the EU, a substantial decline of trust in European institutions has been recognisable, especially since the financial crisis of 2007/08. And yet, confidence in the institutions of the EU is of vital importance if European democracy is to remain steadfast. To restore and increase trust, various ideas exist. Find more in section solutions.

Trust in one's fellow people is as important for high standards of living as societal cohesion and stability. To maintain this, strong institutions and equal distribution of opportunities, income and wealth are necessary. As is the possibility to equally participate in and contribute to public life for all people. Discover more in our solutions.

Containing social exclusion of people is as important for high standards of living as societal cohesion and stability. As manifold as the causes of exclusion are, so are the possibilities of reducing it. Find out more under solutions.

Unemployed people in % of working population (EUROSTAT)

EU 28 VALUE
2007: 7,2 %
2012: 10,5 %
2017: 7,6 %
Country 2007 2012 2017
EU 28 EU 28 7,2 % 10,5 % 7,6 %
Belgium BE 7,5 % 7,6 % 7,1 %
Bulgaria BG 6,9 % 12,3 % 6,2 %
Denmark DK 3,8 % 7,5 % 5,7 %
Germany DE 8,5 % 5,4 % 3,8 %
Estonia EE 4,6 % 10 % 5,8 %
Finland FI 6,9 % 7,7 % 8,6 %
France FR 8 % 9,8 % 9,4 %
Greece GR 8,4 % 24,5 % 21,5 %
Ireland IE 5 % 15,5 % 6,7 %
Italy IT 6,1 % 10,7 % 11,2 %
Croatia HR 9,9 % 15,8 % 11,1 %
Latvia LV 6,1 % 15 % 8,7 %
Lithuania LT 4,3 % 13,4 % 7,1 %
Luxembourg LU 4,2 % 5,1 % 5,6 %
Malta MT 6,5 % 6,3 % 4 %
Netherlands NL 4,2 % 5,8 % 4,9 %
Austria AT 4,9 % 4,9 % 5,5 %
Poland PL 9,6 % 10,1 % 4,9 %
Portugal PT 9,1 % 15,8 % 9 %
Romania RO 6,4 % 6,8 % 4,9 %
Sweden SE 6,1 % 8 % 6,7 %
Slovakia SK 11,2 % 14 % 8,1 %
Slovenia SI 4,9 % 8,9 % 6,6 %
Spain ES 8,2 % 24,8 % 17,2 %
Czech Republic CZ 5,3 % 7 % 2,9 %
Hungary HU 7,4 % 11 % 4,2 %
United Kingdom GB 5,3 % 7,9 % 4,4 %
Cyprus CY 3,9 % 11,9 % 11,1 %
SHARE
EXPORT
inequalityin.eu
Start Income Life Solutions Motivation Data and Sources Contact & Imprint Data Protection
inequalityin.eu
Please select your language:
de en
Settings
Standard
Gender
P25/Median/P75
Checking up on Standards of Living
EUR
PPS
Monthly wage
Hourly Wage
Apply
Share this page